Why does a woman need vitamin d
Learn about our expanded patient care options for your health care needs. Erin Donnelly Michos, M. Sometimes a little bit of sunshine is the best medicine. A walk in the park or a bike ride probably puts you in a good mood, and a moderate amount of sun is also good for your physical health. Did your mom tell you to drink vitamin D-rich milk to build strong bones and teeth?SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Why Mature Women Need Vitamin D
SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Vitamin D For Women - do you have signs of Vitamin D deficiency?Content:
- COVID-19 Update
- Taking too much vitamin D can cloud its benefits and create health risks
- Do You Really Need to Take Vitamin D Supplements?
- NEJM Journal Watch
- Calcium and vitamin D: How much do you need?
- Getting Enough Calcium and Vitamin D
- Get the Facts on Calcium and Vitamin D
- The Role of Vitamin D Supplements in Women’s Health
- The Benefits of Vitamin D
Vitamin D is pivotal to the absorption of calcium and maximizing bone health. Women suffer great morbidity and mortality related to osteoporosis and fractures, which may be decreased by interventions such as vitamin D. In addition, extraskeletal benefits of vitamin D have been postulated including positive effects on cancer.
Both the classical and nonclassical functions of vitamin D will be discussed here, with a focus on women. Although vitamin D deficiency is currently a hot topic of discussion, the debate started long ago. Initially identified as a vitamin in the s, scientists now define it as a prohormone.
By , food and drinks were being fortified, but it was not well monitored, and children experienced toxicity, causing many countries to stop fortification. From the liver, the 25 OH D travels to the kidneys where it is converted into 1,dihydroxyvitamin D 1,25[OH] 2 D or calcitriol , which is the active form of vitamin D. Many factors contribute to vitamin D deficiency.
Finally, diseases of the kidneys and liver affect vitamin D levels by disrupting synthesis. Annually, there are 1. Vitamin D is known to affect bone physiology with its impact on calcium and phosphorus levels. Studies have been done evaluating the effect of vitamin D on fractures, falls, and muscle strength. The results showed no statistically significant reduction in hip fractures or total fractures. In addition to risk of fractures, correlation between vitamin D and falls has been investigated.
One downside of this study is the smaller sample size. Although the above results can be difficult to interpret, it is important to note that the benefits or harms of vitamin D supplementation may be dose related and need to be studied separately from calcium.
Further large randomized controlled trials are needed to shed light on the inconsistent results. In addition to the classical musculoskeletal functions, vitamin D has been found to possibly exert influence on nonclassical sites, 1 such as the brain, prostate, breast, and colon. A possible issue with this trial was that follow-up was 7 years, but the latency for developing colon cancer is 10 to 20 years.
Garland et al looked at 30 studies with vitamin D and colon cancer, finding 20 with a statistically significant benefit of vitamin D, its metabolites, or sunlight exposure; 5 with borderline statistically significant benefit; and 5 with no association. Vitamin D has also been a point of discussion in reproductive and endocrine fields. There have been cross-sectional studies showing a possible association between low vitamin D and menstrual dysfunction, infertility, hirsutism, obesity, and insulin resistance in patients with PCOS.
However, there is a paucity of evidence proving causality; thus, further research is needed. They do not feel there is sufficient evidence for screening all pregnant women, but, if a deficiency is identified, most experts agree that to IU per day is safe. To get vitamin D from sunlight, exposing arms and legs for 5 to 30 minutes between the hours of 10 am and 3 pm is usually sufficient but depends on skin pigmentation, time of day, latitude, and season.
Being a fat-soluble vitamin, vitamin D toxicity is a concern, but fortunately it is an extremely rare occurrence. Researchers and clinicians over the years have shown that too little and too much vitamin D can have negative health consequences.
Unfortunately, we still do not have clear insight as to exactly how much vitamin D is best. Confounders such as skin pigmentation, latitude of residence, obesity, and others make standardizing and simplifying the recommendations difficult.
Further randomized controlled trials are needed with a large diverse population supplementing with vitamin D alone. Specifically for women, further research is needed for osteoporosis and fracture prevention, cancer incidence, pregnancy outcomes, and PCOS treatment. Factors that may impact vitamin D absorption and availability such as gastrointestinal issues and body mass index need to be adjusted for in the studies.
For now, clinicians should take into consideration individual variables when recommending vitamin D supplementation. Author Contributions. Conceived the concept: TB, MG. Analyzed the data: TB, MG. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: TB. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: TB, MG.
Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: TB, MG. Jointly developed the structure and arguments for the paper: TB, MG.
Made critical revisions and approved final version: TB, MG. All authors reviewed and approved of the final manuscript. As a requirement of publication the authors have provided signed confirmation of their compliance with ethical and legal obligations including but not limited to compliance with ICMJE authorship and competing interests guidelines, that the article is neither under consideration for publication nor published elsewhere, of their compliance with legal and ethical guidelines concerning human and animal research participants if applicable , and that permission has been obtained for reproduction of any copyrighted material.
This article was subject to blind, independent, expert peer review. The reviewers reported no competing interests. Provenance: the authors were invited to submit this paper. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Clin Med Insights Womens Health. Published online Oct Tiffany M. Bohon 1 and Marci A. Goolsby 2.
Find articles by Tiffany M. Marci A. Find articles by Marci A. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open access article. Unrestricted non-commercial use is permitted provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Vitamin D is pivotal to the absorption of calcium and maximizing bone health. Introduction Although vitamin D deficiency is currently a hot topic of discussion, the debate started long ago.
Risk Factors Many factors contribute to vitamin D deficiency. Nonclassical Effects of Vitamin D In addition to the classical musculoskeletal functions, vitamin D has been found to possibly exert influence on nonclassical sites, 1 such as the brain, prostate, breast, and colon.
Toxicity Being a fat-soluble vitamin, vitamin D toxicity is a concern, but fortunately it is an extremely rare occurrence. Conclusion Researchers and clinicians over the years have shown that too little and too much vitamin D can have negative health consequences.
Holick MF. Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. Moyer VA U. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation to prevent fractures in adults: U. Ann Intern Med. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med. Wimalawansa SJ. Vitamin D in the new millennium. Curr Osteoporos Rep. The effects of vitamin D deficiency in athletes. Am J Sports Med.
Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the US population, — Arch Intern Med. Nabel EG. Twombly R. J Natl Cancer Inst. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of colorectal cancer. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures.
Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people randomised evaluation of calcium or vitamin D, RECORD : A randomised placebo-controlled trial. A pooled analysis of vitamin D dose requirements for fracture prevention. Patient level pooled analysis of 68 patients from seven major vitamin D fracture trials in US and Europe. Annual high-dose oral vitamin D and falls and fractures in older women: A randomized controlled trial. A higher dose of vitamin D reduces the risk of falls in nursing home residents: A randomized, multiple-dose study.
J Am Geriatr Soc. Rosen CJ. Clinical practice. The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention. Am J Public Health. Vitamin D in the aetiology and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Endocrinol Oxf ; 77 3 — Association between maternal serum hydroxyvitamin D level and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
Taking too much vitamin D can cloud its benefits and create health risks
Diane E. With conflicting nutritional information available from multiple sources, it's hard to decide not only what to eat, but what, if any, supplements to take. It's commonly recommended that women — especially as they get older — should take calcium and vitamin D supplements to help strengthen bones and protect against future fractures broken bones. However, the U. Preventive Services Task Force USPSTF recently concluded that there isn't enough proof that taking these supplements before or after menopause prevents fractures in women who never had fractures before, and that the possible harm supplements may cause is unknown.
Vitamin D is necessary for building and maintaining healthy bones. That's because calcium, the primary component of bone, can only be absorbed by your body when vitamin D is present. Your body makes vitamin D when direct sunlight converts a chemical in your skin into an active form of the vitamin calciferol. Vitamin D isn't found in many foods, but you can get it from fortified milk, fortified cereal, and fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel and sardines. The amount of vitamin D your skin makes depends on many factors, including the time of day, season, latitude and your skin pigmentation.
Do You Really Need to Take Vitamin D Supplements?
Join AARP at 1 p. Learn more. A report from the Institute of Medicine setting new guidelines for vitamin D and calcium increases the recommended levels of D, but maintains or decreases the recommended levels for calcium. Most Americans and Canadians, the report states, are getting enough vitamin D and calcium, although older men and women may fall short. Women, beginning at age 51, and both men and women over age 71, need 1, mg of calcium a day, the same as in The report also notes that taking more than 4, IU of vitamin D daily up from 2, IU or 2, mg of calcium daily down from 2, mg increases the risk for harm. Very high levels of vitamin D above 10, IU a day may cause kidney and tissue damage. Evidence of risks at lower levels is limited, but some studies offer tentative signals about adverse health effects.
NEJM Journal Watch
Recent media reports and studies have left many confused about calcium supplements and their effect on the heart. While some studies have suggested a possible link between calcium supplements and heart-related problems, substantial evidence supports that taking the recommended amount of calcium supplements poses no risk to the heart. What we know is that experts agree getting enough calcium is critical for bone health and overall health. NOF recommends that women age 50 and younger get 1, mg of calcium from all sources daily and that women age 51 and older get 1, mg. For men, NOF recommends 1, mg of calcium daily for those age 70 and younger and 1, mg for men age 71 and older.
Vitamin D is having its day in the sun. In recent years, research has associated low blood levels of the vitamin with higher risks of everything from heart disease, diabetes, and cancer to mood disorders and dementia. The findings have not gone unnoticed.
Calcium and vitamin D: How much do you need?
Vitamin D is pivotal to the absorption of calcium and maximizing bone health. Women suffer great morbidity and mortality related to osteoporosis and fractures, which may be decreased by interventions such as vitamin D. In addition, extraskeletal benefits of vitamin D have been postulated including positive effects on cancer. Both the classical and nonclassical functions of vitamin D will be discussed here, with a focus on women.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Vitamin D Supplements
Vitamin D deficiency means that you do not have enough vitamin D in your body. Vitamin D is unique because your skin actually produces it by using sunlight. Fair-skinned individuals and those who are younger convert sunshine into vitamin D far better than those who are darker-skinned and over age Vitamin D is one of many vitamins our bodies need to stay healthy. This vitamin has many functions, including:.
Getting Enough Calcium and Vitamin D
If you buy something through a link on this page, we may earn a small commission. How this works. A human body produces vitamin D as a response to sun exposure. A person can also boost their vitamin D intake through certain foods or supplements. Vitamin D is essential for several reasons, including maintaining healthy bones and teeth.
Get the Facts on Calcium and Vitamin D
And even worse, they say the supplements may increase the risk of death from other diseases. Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission.
The Role of Vitamin D Supplements in Women’s Health
Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is one of the main building blocks of bone. Vitamin D also has a role in your nervous, muscle, and immune systems. You can get vitamin D in three ways: through your skin, from your diet, and from supplements.
The Benefits of Vitamin D