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Does my boyfriend need treatment for bv

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What's hard to diagnose, hard to treat, affects 10 to 15 per cent of Australian women — and could turn out to be sexually transmissible? While this is early research, circumcision appears to be linked to a reduction of these bacteria in men. Studies also suggest that women who are treated for BV may have high rates of recurrence because they are re-infected after sex with their partner after treatment. BV is distressing for women on many counts.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Pelvic inflammatory disease - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

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SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Bacterial Vaginosis - 10 Tips to Prevent, Recognize, and Treat

Monogamy May Up Chances a Vaginal Infection Will Recur

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Recurrence following recommended treatment for bacterial vaginosis is unacceptably high. While the pathogenesis of recurrence is not well understood, recent evidence indicates re-infection from sexual partners is likely to play a role.

The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and tolerability of topical and oral antimicrobial therapy in male partners of women with bacterial vaginosis BV , and to investigate the impact of dual-partner treatment on the vaginal and penile microbiota. Couples provided self-collected genital specimens and completed questionnaires at enrolment and then weekly for 4-weeks. Genital microbiota composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

Changes in genital microbiota composition were assessed by Bray-Curtis index. Bacterial diversity was measured by the Shannon Diversity Index. Twenty-two couples were recruited. Medication, and particularly topical clindamycin in males, was well tolerated. We observed a reduction in bacterial diversity of the vaginal microbiota and a decrease in the prevalence and abundance of BV-associated bacteria following treatment.

A decrease in the prevalence and abundance of BV-associated bacteria in the cutaneous penile microbiota was observed immediately following treatment at day 8. Combined oral and topical treatment of male partners of women with BV is acceptable and well tolerated.

The combined acceptability and microbiological data presented in this paper supports the need for larger studies with longer follow up to characterize the sustained effect of dual partner treatment on the genital microbiota of couples and assess the impact on BV recurrence.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Behavioral data is required to be securely stored in keeping with the requirements of the Human Research and Ethics Committee of the Alfred Hospital. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Bacterial vaginosis BV is a common condition and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, and increased susceptibility to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections STIs [ 1 — 4 ].

It is a dysbiosis characterized by a decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillus spp. BV-associated bacteria identified to date include Gardnerella vaginalis , Prevotella spp. Possible mechanisms for recurrence include reinfection from a sexual partner or endogenous source, persistence of BV-associated bacteria following treatment and failure to recolonize with desirable Lactobacillus spp. There is strong observational evidence that sexual activity plays a key role in both BV acquisition and recurrence[ 15 — 18 ].

Meta-analysis has shown associations between lack of condom use and exposure to new or multiple sexual partners with BV [ 19 ]. Additionally, two cohort studies of women who have sex with women reported a significant association between acquiring BV and reporting a new partner or a partner with BV[ 18 , 20 ].

Microbiological data support the contribution of sexual transmission to the pathogenesis of BV through the exchange of BV-associated bacteria between sexual partners. The coronal sulcus and distal urethra can harbour BV-associated bacteria[ 21 ], and male partners of women with BV are reported to have an increased abundance of BV-associated bacteria in their penile skin and urethral microbiota compared to male partners of women without BV[ 22 , 23 ].

Despite the strong evidence for sexual transmission of BV, randomised controlled trials RCTs of male partner-treatment have failed to reduce BV recurrence[ 24 — 29 ]. A recent Cochrane review rated the quality of the evidence as low to very low[ 30 ], and the discrepancy between current epidemiological evidence and the results of past RCTs is likely due to methodological limitations[ 31 ]. In addition none evaluated topical antibiotic therapy for males.

We hypothesise that while urethral organisms are more likely to be effectively targeted by oral antibiotics, cutaneous colonisers of the coronal sulcus are more likely to be cleared by topical antibiotics.

Thus it is plausible that combined oral and topical antimicrobial therapy is required to effectively clear BV-associated bacteria from both the coronal sulcus and distal urethra. Topical therapy is also likely to be particularly important in uncircumcised males who have a high abundance of sub-preputial BV-associated bacteria[ 22 ].

Male circumcision has been shown to reduce detection of BV-associated genera in males[ 32 ] and to reduce the risk of BV acquisition in women[ 33 , 34 ], providing further evidence that cutaneous carriage of BV-associated bacteria plays an important role in the pathogenesis of BV acquisition and recurrence. The primary objective of this pilot study was to assess the acceptability and tolerability of combined topical and oral antimicrobial therapy in male partners of women with BV.

Our secondary objective was to investigate the impact of dual-partner treatment i. There are no published data on the effect of antimicrobials used for BV treatment on the penile skin and urethral microbiota.

Tolerability and microbiota data are needed to provide an evidence base to inform larger clinical trials of combined topical and oral therapy in males. Women presenting with vaginal symptoms were routinely tested for BV by the Nugent and Amsel methods. Women diagnosed and treated for BV who had a regular male partner and expressed interest in the study were referred to a research nurse who screened them for eligibility. Women were eligible if they were 18 to 55 years old, were being treated for symptomatic BV and had a single regular male sexual partner who was willing to be enrolled in the trial women were asked to confirm if it was likely that their male partner would agree participate.

A regular partner was defined for the purpose of this study as someone who was considered by the female to be a boyfriend or partner.

Women were ineligible if they were HIV positive, pregnant or breast feeding, diagnosed with current PID, if they were allergic to study medication, or had other concurrent sexual partners. Male partners of eligible women were recruited either in clinic following onsite consultation, or during a phone consultation with a clinician and research nurse; an electronic medical record for these male participants was created. Where possible, the male partner started treatment on the same day as his female partner; however, treatment could be commenced within a week of the female commencing therapy.

Before commencing treatment, women completed a questionnaire recording demographic, behavioural, clinical and contraceptive information. Women provided two self-collected high-vaginal swabs using Copan flocked swabs for Nugent scoring and microbiota analysis. Males completed a questionnaire recording demographic and behavioural information, and provided a self-collected penile swab and a urine swab for microbiota analysis. The penile swab was obtained by rubbing a Copan flocked swab moistened with sterile water around the coronal sulcus and over the glans of the penis.

Males were instructed to rub the swab firmly twice around the coronal sulcus before using the same swab to rub the glans of the penis. If the male was uncircumcised he was instructed to pull pack his foreskin before collecting the swab.

For the urine swab, males urinated the first 20 mL of urine into a urine pot and dipped a Copan flocked swab into the collected urine to facilitate return of specimens by post. Participants returned weekly questionnaires and self-collected genital specimens for four weeks following completion of treatment 8, 14, 21 and 28 days post treatment. At each time point females provided a vaginal swab and a vaginal smear for Nugent scoring; males provided a penile swab and a urine swab.

Questionnaires and specimens were returned by mail. Participants were asked to either abstain from penile-vaginal sex or to have protected sex during the treatment period days 0 to 7. The primary outcome was to assess male participant acceptability and tolerability of treatment. Adherence and side effects to treatment were self-reported on day 8 at the end of the treatment period, providing a measure of acceptability of the trial. Couples were included in the analysis of the primary outcome if both the male and female partner completed the day 8 questionnaire.

The secondary outcome was the impact of dual-partner treatment on the genital microbiota of couples, assessed at baseline i. Although this study was not powered to measure BV recurrence, vaginal smears underwent blinded Nugent Scoring[ 35 ] by an experienced microscopist so that we could record whether or not BV recurred within the 28 day follow-up period. Specimens with insufficient DNA for amplification were re-extracted using an alternate methodology S1 File.

Twenty negative control samples were included to facilitate identification of reagent contaminants S1 Table. Tagcleaner standalone v0. Initially, unassigned reads and OTUs with less than three sequences were discarded. The OTU table was then screened for contaminants. OTUs were flagged as contaminants and filtered from the OTU table if they were present in all control specimens or previously reported as common sequencing contaminants and were not expected in the clinical context.

Similar approaches have been discussed previously[ 49 , 50 ] S2 Table. A total of 6,, reads remained after post-processing and contaminant removal. Specimens were rarefied to an even sampling depth 1, reads prior to analysis. Two cutaneous penile and thirteen urine specimens did not produce an adequate number of reads and were excluded from further analysis.

As a result, there were insufficient urine specimens to enable paired comparisons before and after treatment for participants and between couples.

Using R Studio [V0. The 30 most abundant bacterial taxa for each specimen type were included in the heatmap analysis. The proportion of females and males who were retained in the study and who adhered to medication was calculated.

Adherence was calculated as number of tablets taken or doses applied as a proportion of the total number of tablets or doses prescribed.

Bray-Curtis scores were calculated using the vegan package between paired specimens from each participant to investigate the immediate day 0 and 8 and sustained day 0 and 28 effect of treatment on the composition of the vagina and cutaneous penile microbiota. Scores were given a value from zero substantial change in the presence or abundance of bacterial taxa to one minimal change. Alpha diversity was expressed as the effective number of taxa i.

Changes in alpha diversity were assessed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Prevalence of each taxon was calculated as the number of specimens positive for a specific taxon at time point A for specimen type X as a proportion of the total number of specimens available at time point A for specimen type X. Abundance of each taxon was calculated as the number of sequences for a specific taxon in specimen A as a proportion of the total number of sequences in specimen A ; abundance of taxa was summarised by specimen type and time point using descriptive statistics mean, median, range and interquartile range [IQR].

The 30 most abundant bacterial taxa for each specimen type were included in prevalence and abundance analyses. We measured the impact of sexual partnerships on the genital microbiota of sexual partners by: 1 comparing the similarity of the genital microbiota of partners to non-partners, and 2 investigating the correlation of prevalent taxa in the vaginal and cutaneous penile microbiota of partners.

We used the approach of Zozaya et al[ 23 ] to compare the similarity in bacterial communities of sexual partners to non-partners, with the following modifications: Bray-Curtis scores were used as the distance measure as described above and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to measure statistical significance.

Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Forty-one women were referred to the research nurse, 14 women declined and three were deemed ineligible. Two male partners declined participation after the female had been screened Fig 1. Participant flowchart detailing number of women screened for eligibility, resulting number of couples recruited to study and their progression through the study period. LTFU, lost to follow up.

The mean age at baseline was The median duration of relationship between couples was nine months IQR, 3—12 months. One couple was positive for chlamydia and was prescribed azithromycin single 1g oral dose ; one female was positive for gonorrhoea and she and her male partner were prescribed azithromycin single 1g oral dose and ceftriaxone mg intramuscular injection. Of the 16 couples who provided adherence and tolerability data, 14 women received oral metronidazole and two requested vaginal clindamycin; all males received both oral metronidazole and topical clindamycin.

For 15 of the 16 couples, the male and female partner started treatment within four days of each other 10 started simultaneously , and for one couple, the male partner started treatment a week following the female. Study medications were well tolerated by participants. One male experienced a mild body rash involving trunk and limbs not involving the penis on day six of treatment and was advised not to take the final day of study medication. The women who received clindamycin reported no adverse effects.

During the treatment period day 0 to 7 six of 16 couples reported unprotected vaginal sex, one couple reported unprotected anal sex and five couples reported oral sex Table 4. All 16 couples reported unprotected vaginal sex between day 8 and 28, with one couple reporting unprotected anal sex during this time.

Can You Give BV To Your Male Partner?

Bacterial vaginosis BV is caused by a complex change in vaginal bacterial flora, with a reduction in lactobacilli which help maintain an acidic environment and an increase in anaerobic gram-negative organisms including Gardnerella vaginalis species and Bacteroides , Prevotella , and Mobiluncus genera. Infection with G vaginalis is thought to trigger a cascade of changes in vaginal flora that leads to BV. Photomicrograph revealing clue cells epithelial cells that have had bacteria adhere to their surface.

The content here can be syndicated added to your web site. Print Version pdf icon. Bacterial vaginosis BV is a condition that happens when there is too much of certain bacteria in the vagina.

Bacterial vaginosis BV is the most common of three vaginal infections that fall under the category known as vaginitis. The other two infections are trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease, and the fungal infection commonly known as a yeast infection. BV is the least understood and most often ignored or misdiagnosed of these conditions. However, it is gaining more attention as more research shows that untreated BV can lead to significant health complications, including premature delivery, postpartum infections, clinically apparent and subclinical pelvic inflammatory disease PID , postsurgical complications after abortion, hysterectomy, cesarean section and other reproductive procedures , increased vulnerability to HIV infection and, possibly, infertility.

Can males get bacterial vaginosis?

Back to Health A to Z. Bacterial vaginosis BV is a common cause of unusual vaginal discharge. The most common symptom of bacterial vaginosis is unusual vaginal discharge that has a strong fishy smell, particularly after sex. You may notice a change to the colour and consistency of your discharge, such as becoming greyish-white and thin and watery. If you're unsure it's BV, check for other causes of unusual vaginal discharge. The condition is not usually serious, but you'll need to be treated with antibiotics if you do have BV. It's also important to seek treatment if you're pregnant as there's a small chance that BV can cause complications with pregnancy. Find a sexual health clinic.

Antibiotic treatment for the sexual partners of women with bacterial vaginosis

Having multiple sex partners increases the risk of bacterial vaginosis — an imbalance of vaginal bacteria that can cause pain and itching in women — but a new study suggests that being faithful to one partner may cause the infection to recur. Women in the study who were treated for bacterial vaginosis BV were about twice as likely to experience a recurrence if they had sexual intercourse with the same partner before and after treatment, compared to women who had a new sexual partner, or no partner, after treatment. Antibiotics can cure symptoms of BV in about 80 percent of women. However, in up to 50 percent of women, symptoms come back 3 to 12 months after treatment, the researchers said. The findings raise an interesting question, the researchers said: Would treating a women's sexual partner for BV at the same time she is undergoing treatment reduce the risk of recurrence?

She was diagnosed by her doctor with bacterial vaginosis BV , a complicated condition that's difficult to diagnose, harder to treat, and profoundly affects the health and wellbeing of Australian women.

Bacterial vaginosis BV is the most common cause of unusual vaginal discharge. One in three people with a vagina get it at some time. People who have bacterial vaginosis have:.

Effective treatment of recurrent bacterial vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis BV is an infection caused by having too much of a certain type of bacteria in the vagina. The vagina naturally maintains a balance of lactobacilli, which are beneficial bacteria. These are often referred to as the vaginal flora or microbiota. When vaginal flora is out of balance, harmful anaerobic bacteria take over.

As many women will know, having sex can trigger a bout of bacterial vaginosis, or BV, and recurring BV can really spoil the mood for you. BV is one of the most common vaginal conditions it is estimated to affect one in three of us , yet not many people have heard of it — in fact, symptoms of bacterial vaginosis are often confused with a yeast infection or thrush symptoms. BV is probably the last thing you want to be thinking about during sex, but if you are prone to recurring BV and sex might trigger your bacterial vaginosis symptoms, then there are some things you can do to help reduce the chances of developing BV after sex. As well as protecting you from STIs it will help prevent semen from entering the vagina. BV is triggered by anything that upsets the vaginal pH, which is slightly acidic — semen is alkaline, so it upsets the balance and hey presto — you have recurring BV!

Men could be key to vaginal infection cure

Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal odor and discharge. It is caused by a change in the type of bacteria found in the vagina. Normally, bacteria belonging mostly to the Lactobacillus family live harmlessly in the vagina and produce chemicals that keep the vagina mildly acidic. In bacterial vaginosis, Lactobacillus bacteria are replaced by other types of bacteria that normally are present in smaller concentrations in the vagina. Scientists do not fully understand the reason for this change.

Men can have a colonisation of Gardnerella in their urethra but it does not generally cause any symptoms and they do not necessarily need to be treated. If the.

Bacterial Vaginosis BV is a common vaginal infection. It affects one of every five women of childbearing age. A normal, healthy vagina has mostly healthy or "good" bacteria and very few unhealthy or "bad" bacteria. BV develops when the pH balance or level of acidity in your vagina is upset. This change allows the "bad" bacteria to increase to 1, times more than normal.

Bacterial Vaginosis (Gardnerella Vaginitis)

I think I had it about four times in the span of 18 months. One in ten women experience bacterial vaginosis. Credit: Stocksy. Subsequent studies by the team also suggest this high recurrence rate could be because the infection is sexually transmitted: the biggest risk factor for developing bacterial vaginosis is exposure to a new sexual partner, and a study of university students found the infection was unable to be detected in women who had never been sexually active.

Recurrence following recommended treatment for bacterial vaginosis is unacceptably high. While the pathogenesis of recurrence is not well understood, recent evidence indicates re-infection from sexual partners is likely to play a role. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and tolerability of topical and oral antimicrobial therapy in male partners of women with bacterial vaginosis BV , and to investigate the impact of dual-partner treatment on the vaginal and penile microbiota. Couples provided self-collected genital specimens and completed questionnaires at enrolment and then weekly for 4-weeks.

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Jump to navigation. We assessed the effectiveness in women and the safety in men of concurrent antibiotic treatment for the sexual partners of women treated for bacterial vaginosis BV. BV results in an imbalance of the normal vaginal flora. Microorganisms associated with BV have been isolated from the normal flora of the male genital tract, and their presence could be related to the recurrence of infection after antibiotic treatment. Therefore, the treatment of sexual partners could offer the advantages of decreasing the recurrence of infection and possibly reducing the burden of the disease.

Bacterial Vaginosis BV is an infection, which can be caused by a number of bacteria, including Gardnerella Vaginalis. Women with BV will have an altered PH balance in their vagina, which is more alkaline than normal. Women who have this infection will often develop a discharge that is greyish in colour and has a foul, fishy odour. The discharge may increase after having sex or around the time of menstruation. BV is not normally accompanied by any vaginal soreness or itching. BV is not a sexually transmitted infection, although it is most common amongst women who are sexually active; those who started having sex at a young age and the incidence does tend to rise in correlation with the number of sexual partners that they have had in their lifetime.

Bacterial vaginosis BV is an infection in the vagina. Males cannot develop bacterial vaginosis, but they can spread the infection. People with BV can get symptoms that include excess and discolored discharge from the vagina. It can cause a burning or itching sensation around the vagina, especially when urinating.

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